Service Center thermochemical treatment of steel and cast iron.
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Service Center thermochemical treatment of steel and cast iron.
Summary of ideas.
1. The establishment of the service center, chemical and heat treatment of steel predetermined current economic processes in the industry. The changed economic conditions and laws of economic development put forward their demands to the ways and methods of economic management. Not only to make products, it is important to sell it. In this situation, the winner is who has the smallest share of costs in the price of products.
Existing businesses today created many years ago, when questions were predetermined form of marketing management. This determined the structure of production, acting principle of self-sufficiency - all kinds of processing or treatment must be present at the same site, under common management and provide the maximum amount of output. Therefore, all the major machine-building enterprises are casting, tooling, forging, heat treatment production. For plants lined up on such principles, reducing the volume of production is a disaster, from which without external support can not get out. Possible investments have a long payback period, and often will not be returned. The reason is that the subsidiary formed under the maximum production volumes of the main products and their reduction significantly reduces the hardware utilization of auxiliary facilities, dramatically increases the magnitude of costs. in the price of the finished product. For this reason, complicated by the modernization of enterprises, as none of the auxiliary lines can not be stopped without stopping, in part or in full, primary production, which in turn leads to a waste of working capital for the maintenance of inefficient support industries. Accounts for the new equipment to building projects that, in today's venture modernization turns in an extremely risky in terms of return on investment.
Exit out of the situation in the application of the new organizational and technical solutions in the industry. An example is the creation of highly specialized industries, providing a constant high level of technology and economic efficiency of the chosen direction.
Service Center thermochemical treatment of steel provides
implementation of a new approach in the organization of production processes in industry. In a separate case highlighted one of the complex technological treatment - chemical and thermal treatment. At the enterprises of mechanical engineering, this process is the most unstable in terms of quality assurance. Morally and physically obsolete equipment can not use modern high technology, is an energy source of the marriage.
Special center equipped with modern equipment for thermochemical treatment of steel, provides access to new technologies in the field of heat treatment for any enterprise without exception. For plants producing products in small batches or single copies of such a possibility will abandon their own sections of the heat treatment, which will reduce production costs. In addition, the ideology of providing services in chemical and heat treatment provides a constant load center equipment, regardless of changes in the economic condition of individual customer service.
Furnace center thermochemical treatment have the properties of laboratory equipment. Modern control systems allow you to just copy the parameters once the exhaust process cycle. The costs of energy factors many times lower than in plants operating today in the factories. For example, the consumption of the gas mixture during cementation is one cubic meter per cycle, while existing installations dozens, sometimes hundreds of cubic meters. These quality equipment from leading companies.are the basis for the integration of science and industry ensures the development of new technological processes in the field of heat treatment, the introduction of new materials and alloys with a subsequent application in mass production with high efficiency. To this day, in our country such approaches in the organization of industrial production were used. But their successful long-term use in industrialized countries, the experience of implementation in the former CMEA countries confirm the high technological and economic efficiency. This is due not encumbered by the service centers by high overhead inherent in large enterprises, economic interest in the application of the developed technologies and projects with minimal loss of time and on a larger number of mechanical engineering.
2. To equip the generated service center uses equipment from leading companies in the world.
Furnaces are designed for universal operation. Characterized by its compact design, ease of maintenance, minimal power consumption and cooling gas, high efficiency, as well as lower costs associated with servicing of equipment.
Furnace equipped with a heating chamber of cylindrical cross section, which provides free access to the workspace allows you to load the furnace and oversized cages. Apply broad, light and flexible heating elements made of a curved graphite lying around
cages, which allows for the following:
- The optimal temperature distribution;
- Vacuum heating cages of different shapes, density and complexity of cross-section;
- Reducing the strain cages;
- Rapid heating and cooling ponds due, the minimum mass of the heating system.
A distinctive feature of furnace design is the cooling system with a profiled nozzle aspirated arranged around the cages and in the doorway of the furnace. Gas from the hot zone is removed through the hole in the back. This system provides the best parameters of speed and uniformity of cooling ponds.
Convection heating furnace system design Con / Flap allows faster heating times densely packed cages up to 40% and simultaneously use the oven in low-temperature processes (such as light holiday), as well as carry out isothermal hardening with time in the area of bainite transformation.
Quenching in martensite, particularly in the processing of molds and dies in the furnaces is performed automatically, and in conjunction with convection heating to withstand the SADC region bainite transformation, which reduces distortion and optimizes metallographic structure.
Gas quenching is advanced technology ensures the increasing demands of industry. The process of hardening is cooled in a gas at a pressure of 10.12 bar. Currently, the use of such technology is standard in the heat treatment of tools made of steels for use in cold and hot conditions, high-speed steels, etc. The possibility of quenching gas after the gas or convection / vacuum heating extended to an increasing number of technologies.
One of the most important parameters of this process is the cooling rate. Norma YOU 5617-rev 20.11.1993 (also demands Messier Dowty-Snecma Group) for steel, heat treated to allow section 50 mm at a pressure of cooling gas at least 6 bar. An example of the admissibility of the application of this rule may be thermal treatment of the elements of aircraft landing gear, etc. Using the technology for steel, for example 30ChM time required cooling temperature austenitizing 250 degrees no more than 6 minutes.In the furnace, SECO / WARWICK, with the size of the working chamber 900 * 800 * 1200mm, cages for 1200 kg (body Diesel fuel pumps from the material 4144M (on AISI) with a cross section of 50 mm) obtained during the cooling ponds of up to 250 degrees was 5.5 min. and hardness of 57HRC, uniform for all the cages consisting of 960 parts.
In the production of molds and dies used in Europe, steel H13. In accordance with the requirements of the organization NADCA (document NADCA Recommended Procedure H13 TOOL STEEL), as well as the norms of GM Power Train DC 9999-1, Ford AMTD DC -2010, Toyota, etc., required cooling units H13 with temperature 1030 ° C to 540 at a rate not less than 28 deg / min. Ovens provide a cooling rate of 60 deg / min. In furnaces nearest competitor, the company IPSEN type VUTK this option is 22 deg / min. This parameter confirms a significant advantage over the proposed technology used in the Belarusian industry.
3, vacuum furnaces with the option of grouting works in conjunction with the system FineCard . It is a modular combination of procedures based on the most recent original solutions in the field of selection and optimization of vacuum carburizing. The system takes into account: mark the treated steel, the requirements relating to the profile of carbon concentration and the microstructure of the hardened layer, the shape of the processed elements, size and uniformity of the cages, as well as the tendency of the material to grain growth at high temperatures.System FineCard makes it possible to:
- Composition of the multicast cementing mixture of gases, depending on the form of processed items so as to simultaneously obtain a homogeneous cementing layer on all surfaces (including the no-go deeper and deeper hole), a clean surface of ponds, as well as the complete exclusion of process by-products, such as soot and tar ;
- Selection of characteristics in pressure pulsations cementation phases, depending on the speed of chemical reactions occurring in the gas mixture with a given initial composition;
- Adjust the feed rate of a mixture containing carbon, depending on the size of cages and phase of the process of cementation;
- Use options to limit the growth of grain in the steel with a specific dosage of ammonia during the heating cages;
- The optimal layout of the segment of the process of cementation, broken down into phases of cementation, diffusion, and cooling for quenching, so as to get a specific profile of carbon in the diffusion layer, taking into account the chemical composition of steel and the geometry of the workpiece;
- Archiving processes undertaken and the results of treatment.
The system FaineCard as the original cementing the atmosphere is a mixture of gases with variable composition optimized for each new process regarding the specifics of the treated cages. Cementing the foundation of the atmosphere is a carrier of carbon in the form of two mixed unsaturated hydrocarbons, in particular the volume and proportion confidential.
Beneficial effects are obtained when used with ethylene and acetylene. Moreover, the final result of processing, strengthened compared with the atmosphere, which are based on one-composite bearing element carbon. Prepared in this way supporting element carbon can be optionally mixed with hydrogen.
Finally picked up a cementing composition of the atmosphere based on analysis of the mechanism of chemical reactions.
This structure guarantees the avoidance of adverse reactions and side effects, such as:
- The creation of the aromatic rings and their polymerization - the causes of the resin in the furnace chamber - the effect is particularly dangerous for the atmospheres, which are based on propane as a carrier of carbon and to a lesser degree for solutions that are used for this purpose, ethylene.
- Internal oxidation layer after carburizing - observed in the use of acetylene as a bearing element carbon, which arises from the methods of storage and distribution of hydrocarbon
- Absorption, and then surface diffusion of hydrogen - as a product of chemical reactions - a phenomenon largely responsible for blocking the growth and embrionirovaniya layer after hardening in the pits, holes and places adversely tense, as well as unsystematic and uncontrolled deformation of the treated cages
- Thermal destruction of hydrocarbons gomogenicheskoe - the reason for the soot, the phenomenon is particularly intense in the case of propane, but also observed to a lesser extent for processes implemented using acetylene as the carbon bearing element.
Exclusion of the whole complex of the above negative phenomena in the system FineCard obtained if all the positive qualities characteristic of the individual components of the carbon bearing elements. This ensures uniform, well-developed layers on all surfaces of workpieces, including a deep impassable holes, the surface of the treated cages clean - no trace of soot or tar, tar and no traces on the cooler parts of the furnace chamber and pumping system, and the whole process is effectively a small consumption of industrial gases.
4. Controlled gas nitriding won his place in the industrial sector, a flexible and reliable method for surface treatment of parts and tools made ??of steel. The exclusive economic efficiency of the process, in particular, reduce the cost of finishing parts of complex shape, achieved by minimizing the distortion in shape and size of nitriding parts.
These technologies can improve the wear resistance and protivoshvatyvaemost parts of iron and carbon steels. In addition, the possible process of nitriding, which increases the corrosion resistance of parts due to modification of the electrochemical properties of the surface, eliminating the galvanizing operation - an expensive and environmentally faulty process.
Gas nitriding involves a computerized process control system, in which a special analyzer continuously monitors the composition of the furnace atmosphere and determine the potential nitration Kn. the latter, in turn, serves as the basis for correction of each gas stream so as to maintain Kn within the prescribed limits. Used gases are purified by water, ammonia and dry, pure nitrogen. The proposed technology is a gas nitriding know how to nitriding, including post-oxidation process with exceptional corrosion resistance.
Chief Engineer Chahovsky AK